Citing Sources: English

When information is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized, the source of that information must be documented. Otherwise, you are guilty of plagiarism. To help you in avoiding plagiarism, see this tutorial.

Various standards have been created for citing sources, including APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago formats. Please note that standards for citing electronic information are still evolving, and many print and electronic style guides may appear to be inconsistent in their instructions.

Your professor may have specified which format you should follow; if not, choose one style to follow, and use that style consistently throughout your paper.

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
Developed by the Modern Language Association of America, this is the preferred documentation style in languages and literature, as well as some other disciplines in the humanities.
REF.LB2369.G53 2016  and Information Desk (8th ed.)
LB2369.G53 2009 (7th ed.)

MLA Style Center
A companion website to the new 8th edition of the MLA Handbook. It provides a quick guide to MLA style and shows how to format research papers. 

MLA Formatting and Style Guide (from Purdue University Online Writing Lab)

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (8th ed.)
Citation examples follow the Chicago style.
Information Desk LB2369.T8 2013

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)
APA style is the choice of many social science writers, and is useful for papers containing extensive statistics and tables.
Stacks: BF76.7.P83 2010
REF:BF76.7.P83 2010 (also copy at Information Desk, and on Reserve )

APA Style Electronic Formats (M. E. Guffey)
First pub. in Business Communication Quarterly, March 1997 (online version rev. 2005)

APA Style Essentials (from D. Degelman and M. Harris, Vanguard University of Southern California)
Includes a link to a complete article formatted according to APA Style.

Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.)
Allows for two different types of reference styles. Traditionally, those in literature, history, and the arts use the Notes and Bibliography Style, while many in the physical, natural, and social sciences use the Author-Date System.

Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information (2nd edition)
Provides a guide to citing electronic sources including; full-text databases, Internet discussion groups, USENET Newsgroups, e-mail communication, and United States Government Documents.

Citing Sources (from Owens Library, Northwest Missouri State University)
Includes examples using APA, MLA, Scientific Style (CSE) and Turabian & Chicago styles.

Canadian Style: A Guide to Writing and Editing
Provides information on abbreviations, hyphenation, spelling, capitalization, numerical expressions, italics, punctuation, quotations and quotation marks, reference formats, letters and memorandums, reports and minutes, and elimination of stereotyping in written communication. The chapter - Reference Matters - provides example footnote and bibliography entries including Canadian government publications.

NoteRefWorks is a web-based reference management tool which you can use to create and format bibliographies using APA (and other) citation styles.

Created by: Cathy Callaghan, B.A., M.L.S.
Date Created: 15-November-2008

Modified by Suzanne Jones, B.A., M.L.S.

Date Revised: 2-March-2016
By: Meghan Landry, BA, MLIS