Citing Sources

See also Citing Sources: APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian


When information is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized, the source of that information must be documented ("cited"). Otherwise, you are guilty of plagiarism. Avoid plagiarism: see this tutorial.


Various standards, or "citation styles", have been created for citing sources. The most commonly used are APA, MLA, and Chicago, although over 3,000 exist.

Your department:

Some academic departments have a recommended style manual. If your professor has not specified which format you should follow, choose one style to follow, and use that style consistently throughout your paper. Check the Citing Sources section in the Subject Guide for your discipline. Resources for Documenting Sources in the Disciplines (from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab) may also be useful.


Date revised: July 29, 2014