When information is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized, the source of that information must be documented. Otherwise, you are guilty of plagiarism. To help you in avoiding plagiarism, see this tutorial and quiz.
Various standards have been created for citing sources, including APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago formats. Please note that standards for citing electronic information are still evolving, and many print and electronic style guides may appear to be inconsistent in their instructions.
Your professor may have specified which format you should follow; if not, choose one style to follow, and use that style consistently throughout your paper.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.)
APA style is the choice of many social science writers, and is useful for papers containing extensive statistics and tables.
REF: BF76.7.P83 2001 (also copy at Information Desk)
The Section dealing with Electronic Media (the APA Style Guide to Electronic References) is available online and as a separate publication at the Information Desk.
APA Style Essentials (from D. Degelman and M. Harris, Vanguard University of Southern California)
Includes a link to a complete article formatted according to APA Style.
Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.)
Allows for two different types of reference styles. Traditionally, those in literature, history, and the arts use the Notes and Bibliography Style, while many in the physical, natural, and social sciences use the Author-Date System.
REF: Z253.C54 2010 (also copy at Information Desk)
A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (6th ed.) (Turabian)
Citation examples follow the Chicago style.
"Turabian" Style Guide (from Douglas College Library)
Lots of helpful examples of Chicago/Turabian style given in this guide.
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed.)
Developed by the Modern Language Association of America, this is the preferred documentation style in languages and literature, as well as some other disciplines in the humanities.
MLA Formatting and Style Guide (from Purdue University Online Writing Lab)
Citing Sources (from Owens Library, Northwest Missouri State University)
Includes examples using APA, Chicago, Turabian, and MLA styles.
Note: is a web-based reference management tool which you can use to create and format bibliographies using various citation styles.
Created by: Betty Jeffery, B.A., M.L.S.
Instructional Services Coordinator
Date Created: 09-December-2003
Date Revised: 30-September-2013